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来自美国幼儿教育协会的建议:如何帮助幼儿认识比较二维和三维图形

作者:Linda Dauksas, Jeanne White来源:美国幼儿教育协会时间:2016-03-16点击:

  The following strategies and activities can help preschoolers learn to recognize and compare shapes.

  以下策略和活动可以帮助学前儿童学习辨认和比较图形。

  Identify shapes. Introduce children to different kinds of triangles, such as equilateral, isosceles, scalene, and right. After finding them in the classroom or outdoors, children can outline the triangles with colored tape. For example, they might make right triangles red and scalene triangles blue.

  认识图形。给儿童介绍不同种类的三角形,如等边三角形、等腰三角形、不等边三角形和直角三角形。在教室和户外发现这些图形之后,儿童可以用彩色胶带勾勒出这些三角形,例如,他们可以用红色胶带做直角三角形,用蓝色胶带做不等边三角形。

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  Introduce math words. Create a math word wall or incorporate mathematical words into the existing word wall—color-code the math words to make it easier for children to notice them. Teachers can use real objects, photos, and black line drawings to define the words.

  介绍数学词汇。制作数学词汇墙或者将数学词汇(如三角形、圆形)融入已有的词汇墙中——用彩色标记数学词汇使它们更容易被儿童注意到。老师可以利用真实的物体、照片和图画来解释这些词汇的定义(使其更加易懂)。

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  Compare shapes. Ask children to identify different sizes of the same shape. For example, in the classroom they could search for rectangles, such as windows, doors, books, shelves, cabinets, computer screens, tabletops, and cubbies. Next, help children think as they compare the sizes of rectangles. The door is bigger than the cubbies. The cubbies are bigger than the book, but they are all rectangles. Encourage children to do the same with triangles, circles, and other shapes.

  比较形状。要求幼儿辨认形状相同而大小不同的图形,例如,在教室中他们可以寻找长方形,如窗户、门、书、架子、柜子、电脑屏幕、桌面和置物架;接下来,帮助幼儿比较这些长方形的尺寸:门比置物架大,置物架比书大,但是它们都是长方形。鼓励儿童用三角形、圆形和其他图形进行这样的比较。

  What’s the difference? Explain the differences between two-dimensional (flat) shapes and three-dimensional (solid) shapes. How are the book and piece of construction paper the same? How are they different?

  有什么不同?解释二维(平面)图形和三维(立体)图形的不同:书和美术纸有什么相同之处?有什么不同之处?

  Create a shape-scape. Teachers and families can collect three-dimensional objects such as cans, cartons, boxes, and balls to create a shape-scape. Children can use cylinders (paper towel rolls) as tree trunks, spheres (balls) as treetops, and rectangles (cereal boxes) as buildings. Teachers and children can work together to label the shape-scape, count the number of shapes used, and plan additions to the structure.

  用图形制作景观。老师和家长可以收集三维物品如罐头、纸箱、盒子和球去制作图形景观。儿童可以使用圆筒(卫生纸卷)做树干,球体(球)做树冠,长方形(麦片盒)做建筑。老师和儿童可以一起给景观做标签,数所使用的图形种类,计划所需添加的东西。

  Go from 3-D to 2-D. Preschoolers can dip three-dimensional objects in paints and press them on paper to make prints. Cans, spools, candles, and drinking glasses work well. The children will see the flat shapes that make up the sides of the objects.

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  3D2D学前儿童可以把三维物体浸入颜料中,然后把它们印到纸上,罐头、卷轴、蜡烛和饮料瓶都可以,儿童将会看到组成立体图形的各个平面。

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  Discover shapes outdoors. Look for manhole covers, flags, windows, signs, and other distinct shapes. Working together, children and teachers can take photos of the shapes, label them in the photos, and assemble the photos into a class book.

  发现户外的图形。去户外寻找井盖、旗子、窗户、标志和其他显眼的图形,幼儿和老师可以一起给这些图形拍照,为照片做标签,并把它们收集到班级图书中。

  Learn new vocabulary. Introduce words such as thick, thin, small, large, long, short, and facet during meal and snack times. Offer snacks with various dimensions and encourage children to use comparative words when asking for food. I’d like the long carrot, please. Add these descriptive words to the word wall.

  学习新的词汇。在吃饭和吃点心时介绍与图形有关的词语,如“厚”“薄”“小”“大”“长”“短”“面”。提供不同大小的点心,并鼓励儿童使用这些比较性词语来要食物:“请给我长的胡萝卜。”将这些描述性词语添加到词语墙上。

  Play a shape guessing game. Have preschoolers play in pairs. Explain that one child will hide the shape behind her back and the other will ask questions about the shape. Does the shape have three sides? Does the shape have four angles?

  玩猜形状的游戏。让学前儿童两人一组进行游戏,一个孩子将图形藏到身后,另一个孩子问关于图形的问题,如“这个图形有三个面吗”“这个图形有四个角吗”,根据对方回答来猜是什么图形。

  Offer geoboard challenges. Teachers can offer geoboards so children can create as many different shapes as possible. Provide an additional challenge by asking children to color-code the shapes.

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  提供几何板挑战。老师可以提供几何板,使儿童尽可能多地创造不同的图形,还可以增加难度,如要求儿童给图形做彩色标记。 

 

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  本文节选翻译自Discovering Shapes and Space in Preschool(《在幼儿园发现图形和空间》)

  文章来源: National Association for the Education of Young Child(NAEYC)(美国幼儿教育协会)

  山东学前教育网编译。

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